Permission of the Father
Question :

I have made an oath a few years ago but I now regret having made it, and I would like to cancel it since I find it inconvenient to fulfil it. My understanding is that my father can forbid it, then it would be cancelled. Is this true?

Answer :

The oath that is obligatory to fulfil is the one which is preceded by the permission of the father. If the son made the oath without informing his father or getting his permission, it is not obligatory to fulfil it.

Medical, work, Ahd, Nazr
Question : A man’s mother died from the disease of female genital mutilation in his youth. Then he made a covenant (ahd) with Allah Almighty to become a professional gynecologist, and treat women with similar problems. Is this covenant valid and obligatory to observe? Is it allowed for a Muslim to work as a gynecologist or obstetrician?
Answer : The said covenant (ahd) is correct and one should act upon it if the profession is required to prevent harm from reaching Muslim women. It is not obligatory to act on it if there are enough Muslim female physicians.
It is permissible take up such a profession, and it is permissible to deliver babies when necessary.
Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : What conditions are there for the sacrificial animal which must be slaughtered for a vow? If the animal is damaged or injured, will it suffice?
Answer : It is permissible to sacrifice for the vow a damaged animal.
Question : If one makes a covenant with Almighty Allah, and breaks it more than once, would it be obligatory upon him to pay the Kaffara each time he broke it?
Answer : If he broke the covenant once by doing what he specified in it to abstain from, and he paid the kaffara, he does not have to pay it again each time he does that again.
Question : If somebody pledges an oath on the Holy Quran that he will only smoke during one day a week, and that person encounters strong difficulty trying to uphold that oath, does this mean the oath becomes cancelled due to the strong difficulty he is facing?
Answer : It is not required to fulfill such an oath unless it sworn on Almighty Allah or His names. It is not obligatory to fulfill the oaths on other sanctified things like the Holy Quran and the Ka’bah.. Generally, we advise you to decrease making oaths.
Covenant vs Promise
Question :

Is there any difference between the covenant (ahd) and the promise (wa’d)? If someone says, “I promise (wa’d) to Allah that I will do something”, is this a valid covenant (ahd), although he hasn’t used the word ‘ahd’? Are the rules of covenants applicable to this statement?

Answer :

It is obligatory to act upon the covenant (ahd) with Allah almighty. If one does not do so it is a sin and a kaffarah must be given. Whereas, it is not obligatory to act upon the promise (wa’d) and there is no kaffarah for doing so.
It is better not to do either of them. Doing good deeds when possible and avoiding bad deeds when possible is better than obligating oneself with additional religious duties.

Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : If someone makes a promise to finish the quran, and whilst reading he makes mistakes in the recitation, does he have to go back and correct it or can he carry on?
Answer : The subject of the vow is the correct recitation in the normal way based on the information the person possess. If he paid attention to the mistake during the recitation, then he should correct them. If he paid attention to the mistakes after reciting for some time or after finishing the recitation, then it is not obligated to repeat the recitation correctly although it is better the repeat the verse that was read incorrectly by itself.
Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : In the case of a person making a Qasam (pledge) or Nadr (vow/covenant) to Allah SWT, is it necessary that they utter it in words with the tongue? or is it sufficient that they have the intention in their heart for it to become wajib to act upon?
Answer : It is not mandatory to fulfill the vow (nather) or the oath (Qasam) unless they were pronounced.
Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : If someone makes a nidr (promise) to Allah to write a book, may he, instead of a book put it into a presentation on YouTube or make it into an audio file or does it have to be a book as he mentioned in the promise?
Answer : This depends on the intention of the person that did the vow – nathir. If he meant especially writing on paper, then it becomes obligatory to do so. If he meant composing in general, then this could be done by writing on paper or by presenting the information of the book in any form.
Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : I want to know about the religious position of “if a person say in front of an “Alam” (take a kasam) that I will not smoke and then after years he smoke then
Q1 : will he be liable to any kuffara?
Q2: Can he continue smoking after giving kuffara?
Answer : If the oath is taken by Allah that s/he will refrain from doing certain things like smoking then, kuffara must be paid should the action takes place. Kuffara is setting a slave free or feeding ten needy people 900 grams each of food like dates, flour and rice or providing them with clothes. If these acts can not be performed, one should fast for three consecutive days.
Our advice is to continue avoiding the things that he made the oath to avoid even after they were committed as it is better for him. Taking the oath is valid with or without the presence of a religious scholar.
Vow, Covenant & Oath
Question : If some body made a promise to Allah, (S.W.T) that he would do an obligatory act on that particular day, but due to some laziness he could not do so, then he sets a particular day that he will do the obligatory act on that day, So will the promise be fulfilled without any penalty if he does on that day rather than the day he mentioned at first? And one more thing, if some one broke his promise to Allah Almighty, then does asking for forgiveness be ok alone?
Answer : If the promise with almighty Allah was in the form of a vow - “Nethr”, then when revoked, a “keffara” should be paid. It is freeing a slave, feeding ten needy people or providing clothes for them. If the person is not able to do any of the mentioned, then he/she must fast three consecutive days.
Feeding is by giving 9 kilograms of food. Based on compulsory precaution, it should be wheat, whether it is ground to be flour, or baked to be bread. It is not sufficient to pay the equal value of the said items.
Provided clothes must be full in such a way that they can be worn in front of people.
If the revoke to the promise was in the form of a covenant “Ahed”, then the keffara is freeing a slave, fasting two consecutive months or feeding sixty needy people. Feeding is by giving each one of them 900 grams of wheat, rice or similar kinds of food.