<p style="text-align: left;">Making the Isha prayers in the said case is not required.</p>
<p style="text-align: left;">Yes, it is permissible, and it is recommended to recite the chapter of Al-Jumu'ah as well as Al-Fatiha in the Dhuhr prayer on Friday in an audible voice.</p>
<p style="text-align: left;">Referring to the religious jurists in finding the rulings of the Sharia is one of concepts which have certain limitations and conditions, for which one must refer to the religious legislator, Almighty Allah. The religious texts explain the general qualities of the scholars whom one should refer to. This concept was implemented during the time of the Imams (peace be upon them) themselves, who guided the believers to refer to certain scholars amongst the disciples in various parts of the Muslim world. The followers of the Ahlulbait continued for the subsequent generations to refer to the scholars who fulfilled the criteria described by the Imams (peace be upon them). Since there are more than one scholar who fulfills these qualities, the individual should refer to the one who is most knowledgeable, and determining this is a subjective task for each individual. Therefore, the believers will naturally come to different conclusions and have different Marjas to follow.</p>
Yes, it is permissible but it is not permissible to buy shares of companies that deal with prohibited matters like wine and pig and the like of it if the buyer becomes a partner in owning such things.
This issue is widely believed in some societies, but we are not aware of religious texts that support it.