Day Questions

Is it permissible to mention Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in tashahudd during an obligatory prayer with the intention that it is recommended and not obligatory? If so, what is the best formula for this?

It is not proven that such is recommended in the Tashahud. Reciting it with the knowledge that it is not recommended makes the prayer void.

Can one perform Umrah on behalf of more than one living person?

It is permissible to perform a recommended Umrah on behalf of more than one person, whether they were alive or not.

Who is the killer? The parents who went to a clinic for abortion? Or the doctor who perfumed the abortion? Who is supposed to pay the diyyah?

It is prohibition to participate in this operation or help make it happen. Blood money - diyyah is to be paid by the person that performed the murder.

If one performs Tayammum instead of Ghusl of Janabah, how long will its Taharah last? Is its affect the same as that for the Ghusl, so it lasts until the next time one sustains a major occurrence (Hadath Akbar) like Janabah, menstruation or touching a dead body?

The Tayammum becomes invalid with the elimination of the excuse that caused one to perform Tayammum; like if the patient who performed the Tayammum instead of Ghusl due to his illness was cured, then Ghusl becomes obligatory. It becomes invalid also if the excuse continued but the individual sustained another major occurrence (Hadath Akbar).