Invalidation of Fasts
Question :

If a person does not know that a particular action invalidates the fast, such as using liquid enema, will the fast still be invalidated? Does the same apply to masturbation without knowledge that it invalidates the fast?

Answer :

If the fasting person commits one of the things that invalidates the fast without knowing that it does, his fast is not invalidated.

Journey During Ramadan
Question :

I once was going on a journey during Ramadan, and I incorrectly arrived at the conclusion that I will travel the requisite distance to be considered a traveler and I subsequently broke my fast. However, I now doubt this, and I believe I was wrong to break the fast. Would I be required to pay the kaffara?

Answer :

When you broke your fast, you were believing that it is permissible to do so, so you should make up that day and you do not have to pay kaffara.

Swallowing when Fasting
Question :

If water gets into the throat when rinsing the mouth, is the fast broken and have to be made up again? What If one uses mouthwash rather than water?

Answer :

If one swallows the water in the said case unintentionally, then based on an obligatory precaution he must repeat the fast. He does not have to pay kaffara. The same is the case in using mouthwash.

Not Fasting
Question :

If someone intentionally does not fast, does he have to pay Kaffara as well as making up for the fast later?

Answer :

If they broke their fast knowing that they were obligated to fast then they must pay the Kaffara and make up the lapsed days. In addition to that, if they did not make up the missed days until the next Ramadan, then they must pay 900 grams of dates, wheat, floor, rice, lentils and the like to the needy people for every day that has not been made up.

Breaking the Fast by Masturbation
Question :

If one breaks his fast in the month of Ramadan by masturbation, is he expected to make the fast up, pay the Kaffara and fast 60 days?

Answer :

He should make up the fast of the day that he missed, and pay the Kaffara of feeding sixty needy people and fasting two consecutive months and freeing a slave. Since the last one is not possible nowadays, the Kaffara consists of the first two.

Breaking the Fast
Question :

If I ejaculate during the day in the month of Ramadan, do I need to make up that one day and do I need to pay Kaffara?

Answer :

It is prohibited to deliberately ejaculate in the day during the month of Ramadan. One must make it up and pay the kaffara. If ejaculation was by a prohibited act such as masturbation, then the kaffara is triple, i.e. one must feed sixty needy people and fast two consecutive months and free a slave. Since the latter is not possible nowadays, it is obligatory to do the first two. If ejaculation was by a permissible act, e.g. by intercourse with his wife, the kaffara will be to either feed sixty needy people or to fast two consecutive months.

Eating and Drinking
Question :

Yesterday, I got up just as the Adhan for Fajr prayer was ending. I drank a glass of milk and made the intention to fast. Was my fast valid?

Answer :

Your fasting is void and you should make up that day. If you knew that the time of fasting had began and still broke the fast then you should pay Kaffara as well.

Paying Kaffara
Question :

Where can I give the food that I want to pay as Kaffara and be sure that it will be given to the poor?

Answer :

If you could not find needy Shia believers, you could pass the cost of the food to the offices of the Marja in order to be given as food to the needy believers.

Breaking the Fasts After Dhuhr time
Question :

A person is fasting the two months of fast as Kaffara. If he is invited to eat after Dhuhr time by a believer, can he break his fast?

Answer :

If the fast is for the first month then he cannot break the fast. If he has completed the first month and this fast is of the second month, then it is permissible to break the fast in the mentioned scenario.

Kaffara
Question :

If I know I owe two kaffaras of 60 days of fasting, is it permissible for me to fast 31 days in a row for the first kaffara, then 31 days in a row for the second kaffara, and then complete the fasting of the two sets of 29 fasts later? Or is necessary for me to finish all 60 days of the first kaffara before beginning the second?

Answer :

Yes, you can fast 31 days for the second Kaffara after fasting 31 days for the first Kaffara.

Not Fasting
Question :

I did not fast for the whole of the month of Ramadan and I knew that it was a sin. Also, I have broken many fasts over the previous years, but I don't know how many. If I need to make up for all the fasts, how do I do so if I do not know how many I have missed? And is there anything else I am also obligated to do, such as giving charity?

Answer :

It is obligatory upon you to make up for the days that you have failed to fast from this year and past years. If you did not know the number of days that you deliberately missed, you can consider it to be the lowest number of days that you are sure of.
You should make up for the days that you have missed this last Ramadan before the next Ramadan.
You do not have to make up for the rest of the days from previous Ramadans before the next Ramadan; however, you should not delay making up for them in such a way you are considered to be ignoring and negligent of the religious obligation.
It is also obligatory to undertake the Kaffara for the deliberately missed fasts, and to pay the Fidya of 27 kg of food for every missed month, as explained in more detail in the treatise of Islamic laws.

Looking Poor
Question :

If I see somebody begging on the street or looking poor, may I consider him as one of the 60 needy people for the purposes of paying the Kaffara?

Answer :

Usually they are not trusted to be needy. If one is certain that they are in need then he can give food that satiates them. It is also permissible to give them food if the person knows that they were in need before.

Kaffara
Question :

When giving the Kaffara, do I have to feed all sixty people at once or can I feed one every day or the like?

Answer :

It is obligatory to give to sixty people for every day you have missed whether by giving food to them all in one day or over a longer period.

Paying the Brothers
Question :

When paying the Kaffara, can I give it to my brothers?

Answer :

Yes, you can give it to them if they were in need.

Continuous Make up Days
Question :

I want to fast for two months as a Kaffara for breaking one day’s fast 23 years ago. Should I keep them continuously? Or should I fast for one month together and remaining 30 casually?

Answer :

The Kaffara for deliberate breaking one day of fasting is feeding sixty needy people. Alternatively, it can be fasting two consecutive months. If the fasting begins on the first day of a lunar month, it is sufficient to fast one day from the second month to satisfy the condition of fasting consecutively, and one can separate the fasting of the remaining days as he wishes after that.
If fasting started after the beginning of the lunar month, then based on compulsory precaution, 31 consecutive days must be fasted. The remaining fasts do not have to be consecutive.

Needy Believer
Question :

Do the needy people that one should pay the Kaffara to have to be Muslim or even Shia Muslim? Can they be non-Muslims?

Answer :

It is obligatory in the validity of the Kaffara to pay it to needy Shia believers.